AQLI

更多 AQLI 的报道

Fact Sheets

中国赢得了污染 防治攻坚战吗?

近二十年来,中国一直是世界上污染最严重的前五个 国家之一。但自2014 年成功发起了一场“蓝天保卫战” 之后,中国的细颗粒物污染减少了约40%——近年来跌 出了污染最严重国家排名的前五位。事实上,从2013 年 到2018 年,全球细颗粒物污染降幅中近四分之三来自中 国。如果这种趋势保持下去,中国人的预期寿命将延长2 年。京津冀是2013 年中国污染最严重的地区之一,目前 细颗粒物污染减少了41%,如果保持下去,该地区1.08 亿居民的预期寿命将延长3.4 年。

Reports

年度报告

来自空气质量寿命指数 (“AQLI”) 的最新数据显示,在新冠肺炎爆发之前,空气污染是人类健康的最大威胁,在新冠肺炎之后,如果没有强大而持续的公共政策,空气污染仍将是最大威胁。世界很多地区还没有充分认识到空气污染的严重性,数十亿人的寿命可能因此缩短,健康状况恶化。

Fact Sheets

India Fact Sheet

India is today the world’s second most polluted country. Air pollution shortens the average Indian life expectancy by 5.2 years, relative to what it would be if the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline was met; 2.3 years relative to what it would be if pollution were reduced to meet the country’s own national standard. Some areas of India fare much worse than average, with air pollution shortening lives by 9.4 years in the capital of Delhi and 8.6 years in Uttar Pradesh, the most polluted state.

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Fact Sheets

Pakistan Fact Sheet

Pakistan is today the world’s fifth most polluted country. Air pollution shortens the average Pakistani’s life expectancy by 2.7 years, relative to what it would have been if the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline was met. Some areas of Pakistan fare much worse than average, with air pollution shortening lives by more than 4 years in the most polluted areas.

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Fact Sheets

Bangladesh Fact Sheet

Bangladesh is today the world’s most polluted country. Air pollution shortens the average Bangladeshi’s life expectancy by 6.2 years, relative to what it would have been if the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline was met. Some areas of Bangladesh fare much worse than average, with air pollution shortening lives by about 7 years in the most polluted district.

Fact Sheets

Southeast Asia Fact Sheet

Eighty-nine percent of Southeast Asia’s 650 million people live in areas where particulate pollution exceeds the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline. This pollution cuts short the life expectancy of the average person by 1.4 years, relative to what it would be if the WHO guideline was met. That’s a total of 905 million person-years lost to pollution in the 11 countries that make up this region.

Fact Sheets

Indonesia Fact Sheet

Indonesia is today the world’s ninth most polluted country. Air pollution shortens the average Indonesian’s life expectancy by 2 years, relative to what it would have been if the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline was met. Some areas of Indonesia fare much worse than average, with air pollution shortening lives by more than 7 years in the most polluted region.

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Fact Sheets

Central and West Africa Fact Sheet

In Central and West Africa , regions together comprised of 27 countries and 577 million people, the average person is exposed to particulate pollution levels that are double the World Health Organization’s (WHO) guideline1. If these particulate pollution levels persist, average life expectancy in the regions would be 1.2 years lower, and a total of 677 million person-years would be lost, relative to if air quality met the WHO standard.

Fact Sheets

United States Fact Sheet

Studying pollution in the United States tells largely a success story. Part of the United States once had levels of pollution similar to Beijing in recent years. Los Angeles had become known as the smog capital of the world. And, other large metropolitan areas weren’t far behind. Pollution had become a part of everyday life for many Americans, and citizens made clear that they wouldn’t tolerate it any longer. The Clean Air Act was enacted in 1970, and since that time particulate pollution has declined by 66 percent—extending the life expectancy of the average American by 1.6 years. Forty-four percent of those reductions have occurred over the last twenty years.

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Fact Sheets

Europe Fact Sheet

Studying pollution in Europe tells largely a success story after a series of policy reforms. Today, on average, Europeans are exposed to 41 percent less particulate pollution than they were two decades ago, gaining 9 months of life expectancy because of it. Areas that were historically more polluted have seen even greater gains. In Italy’s northern Veneto region, for instance, residents gained 2.3 years of life expectancy. In the Silesian province of southern Poland, residents gained 2 years.

Reports

South Korea Fact Sheet

South Korea ranked as the 13th most polluted country in the world in 2016, according to the Air Quality Life Index, which shows the average South Korean resident will live 1.4 years because air quality fails to meet the World Health Organization’s (WHO) guideline for fine particulate pollution.

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North India Fact Sheet

More than 480 million people, or about 40 percent of India’s population, reside in the seven states and union territories comprising the bulk of the Indo-Gangetic Plain region of north India – Bihar, Chandigarh, Delhi, Haryana, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal (Figure 1). Though the Indo-Gangetic Plain’s particulate pollution is exacerbated by geologic and meteorological factors, the AQLI’s dust- and sea salt-removed fine particulate matter (PM2.5) data imply that human activity plays a key role in generating the severe particulate pollution that these residents face. That is likely due to the fact that the region’s population density is more than three times that of the rest of the country, meaning more pollution from vehicular, residential, and agricultural sources. A denser population also means more human lives are impacted by each pollution source. Across India, reducing particulate pollution to the World Health Organization’s guideline of 10 μg/m3 would increase the national average life expectancy by 4.3 years. In north India, there would be outsize impacts of policy that reduces air pollution to meet Indian or International norms.

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Thailand Fact Sheet

Thailand is today the world’s seventh most polluted country. Air pollution shortens the average Thai’s life expectancy by more than two years, relative to what it would have been if the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline for long-term fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution was met. Some areas of Thailand fare much worse than average, with air pollution shortening lives by more than four years in the most polluted regions.

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India’s ‘War Against Pollution’: An Opportunity for Longer Lives”

In 2019, India declared a “war against pollution” and launched its National Clean Air Programme (NCAP), signaling its desire to reduce particulate air pollution—the greatest threat to human health on the planet. The Programme, which aims to reduce particulate pollution by 20-30 percent nationally, will be implemented over the next five years. If successful in meeting its goals and sustaining the reduced pollution levels, the NCAP would produce substantial benefits, extending the life expectancy of the average Indian by about 1.3 years. People breathing the most polluted air—namely those in Delhi and parts of Uttar Pradesh—could live up to 3 years longer. Further, the NCAP highlighted 102 cities containing about one quarter of the country’s population that fell short of India’s air standards. If all the cities permanently reduced particulate pollution by 25 percent (the midpoint of NCAP’s goal), their residents would gain 1.4 years. Though achieving the NCAP’s goals would be an important step toward reversing India’s 69 percent increase in fine particulate pollution (PM2.5) concentrations since 1998, India could achieve further gains in life expectancy for its citizens through additional pollution reductions that bring the country into compliance with its own official air quality standards or the World Health Organization’s (WHO) guidelines for PM2.5 concentrations.

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空气质量寿命指数介绍

空气质量寿命指数(AQLI),在测量和表示颗粒物空气污染的健康风险方面,是一个全新突破。这是因为AQLI 将细颗粒物污染浓度转化为了一个重要的测量标准:对预期寿命的影响。AQLI 显示,与世界卫生组织认定的安全水平相比,全球人口平均遭受的细颗粒物空气污染使全球人类预期寿命缩短了近两年。这种预期寿命的减少使得细颗粒物污染的破坏性超过了传染性疾病,例如:结核病和艾滋病、吸烟等致命行为,甚至战争。

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