AQLI

更多 AQLI 的报道

Indonesia’s Worsening Air Quality and its Impact on Life Expectancy

The average Indonesian can expect to lose 1.2 years of life expectancy at current pollution levels, according to the Air Quality Life Index (AQLI), because air quality fails to meet the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline for concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The loss of life expectancy in some regions is more than 4 years.
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Thailand Fact Sheet

Thailand is today the world’s seventh most polluted country. Air pollution shortens the average Thai’s life expectancy by more than two years, relative to what it would have been if the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline for long-term fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution was met. Some areas of Thailand fare much worse than average, with air pollution shortening lives by more than four years in the most polluted regions.
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Pakistan’s Air Pollution Challenge & Potential for Longer Lives

Pakistan had the fifth most polluted air in the world in 2016, due mostly to vehicular and industrial emissions and crop burning. If sustained, this air pollution would cut 2.7 years off the lives of the typical Pakistani, relative to what their life expectancy would be if the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline was met; and 2.2 years relative to its own air quality standard. The district of Lahore suffers the worst, with the average residents losing 5.3 years off their lives, relative to the WHO guideline. As the government begins to confront the air quality problem, this analysis shows that Pakistan has the opportunity to vastly clean up its air. If the country achieved sustained improvements in air quality comparable to what China has achieved in recent years, its residents would live 1.2 years longer on average. Those in Lahore would live 1.9 years longer.
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India’s ‘War Against Pollution’: An Opportunity for Longer Lives”

In 2019, India declared a “war against pollution” and launched its National Clean Air Programme (NCAP), signaling its desire to reduce particulate air pollution—the greatest threat to human health on the planet. The Programme, which aims to reduce particulate pollution by 20-30 percent nationally, will be implemented over the next five years. If successful in meeting its goals and sustaining the reduced pollution levels, the NCAP would produce substantial benefits, extending the life expectancy of the average Indian by about 1.3 years. People breathing the most polluted air—namely those in Delhi and parts of Uttar Pradesh—could live up to 3 years longer. Further, the NCAP highlighted 102 cities containing about one quarter of the country’s population that fell short of India’s air standards. If all the cities permanently reduced particulate pollution by 25 percent (the midpoint of NCAP’s goal), their residents would gain 1.4 years. Though achieving the NCAP’s goals would be an important step toward reversing India’s 69 percent increase in fine particulate pollution (PM2.5) concentrations since 1998, India could achieve further gains in life expectancy for its citizens through additional pollution reductions that bring the country into compliance with its own official air quality standards or the World Health Organization’s (WHO) guidelines for PM2.5 concentrations.
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空气质量寿命指数介绍

空气质量寿命指数(AQLI),在测量和表示颗粒物空气污染的健康风险方面,是一个全新突破。这是因为AQLI 将细颗粒物污染浓度转化为了一个重要的测量标准:对预期寿命的影响。AQLI 显示,与世界卫生组织认定的安全水平相比,全球人口平均遭受的细颗粒物空气污染使全球人类预期寿命缩短了近两年。这种预期寿命的减少使得细颗粒物污染的破坏性超过了传染性疾病,例如:结核病和艾滋病、吸烟等致命行为,甚至战争。
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China Fact Sheet

Over the past two decades, air pollution has emerged as a serious challenge in China. Between 1998 and 2013, a time of historic economic expansion, concentrations of particulate pollution increased by nearly 75 percent on average across the country, rising to more than four times the World Health Organization’s (WHO) safe level. In many areas, particularly in China’s densely populated northeast region, the increases were much larger. At 2013 levels, particulate pollution exposure reduced life expectancy by 3.4 years for the typical Chinese citizen.
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United States Fact Sheet

The United States once struggled with heavy air pollution. Before 1970, the Steubenville, Ohio metropolitan area had particulate pollution concentrations similar to those in Beijing in recent years. Los Angeles had become known as the smog capital of the world, and other large metropolitan areas weren’t far behind. Pollution had become a part of everyday life for many Americans, and citizens made clear that they wouldn’t tolerate it any longer. Congress passed the 1970 Clean Air Act and air quality has vastly improved across the country since then. Today, most of the country enjoys clean air, and the reductions in particulate pollution have improved life expectancy for the average American by 1.5 years. Since the pollution that is easiest to reduce is reduced first, the majority of the air quality improvement came in the years immediately following the passage of the Clean Air Act. Of the reductions since 1970, 15 percent has come since 1998, which the AQLI tracks. Pockets of high particulate pollution, however, still exist in some areas today.
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India Fact Sheet

India is today the world’s second most polluted country, slightly trailing only Nepal. Particulate pollution is so severe that it shortens the average Indian’s life expectancy by more than four years relative to what it would be if World Health Organization (WHO) air quality guidelines were met. This is up from about two years in the late 1990s due to a 69 percent increase in particulate pollution. Concentrations in India’s northern states of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab, and the National Capital Territory of Delhi are substantially higher, and the impact on life expectancy exceeds six years.
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中国正在打赢蓝天保卫战吗?

四年前,中国开启“向污染宣战”。四年后,中国政府是否兑现了改善空气质量的承诺?根据2013 年至20171 年间全国200 多个监测站提供的每日监测数据,我们发现,中国人口稠密地区的空气质量已经显著改善,改善幅度从21% 到42% 不等,大部分地区已经达到甚至超过《大气污染防治行动计划》提出的目标。如果这些改善能够保持的话,中国城市居民的平均预期寿命将比2013 年延长2.3 年。尽管达到国家和世卫组织空气质量标准还有很长的路要走,但上述结果表明,中国正在取得蓝天保卫战的胜利。
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